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The Origins of the Anglo-American Industrial Age Class System


Gantt & Williams

MacGregor and Theories X & Y


Analysis of the Trends

The Hawthorne Effect

General Foods







The Twentieth Century was a time of great change in management styles; in fact, before the Twentieth Century, there was no real knowledge of management styles.  From the Scientific Management revolution through Total Quality Management and Management By Objectives, many methods have been devised to increase worker productivity, and reduce cost and worker turnover.

These changes were driven in part by changes in the workforce itself, from the transition from the Industrial Age to the Electronic Age to the Information Age.  And a great deal of change in management styles was driven by the knowledge of authority, motivation, and self-actualization that was spurred on by parallel progress in the fields of psychology and social science.

This paper examines the changes in management theory, noting how many of them disparaged previous theories.  And, it asks, then: If each of the previous theories was defective, why did they work for a time?  Are the current theories equally defective?  And, if they may be, why should we put our faith in them?

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